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Reconstructive surgery involves suturing back tiny blood veaasals to restore circulation in one of them. it is a boon to the trauma patients who recover after an accident only to be faced with disability and disfigurement for the rest of their lives.

The faces disfigured beyong recognition can be reconstructed using bio-compatible micro titanium plates and screws that are friendly to the body's soft tissues and do not need replacement in future. Apart from this the patient's own tissue and skin grafts are used to cover the injured area when no local tissue is available for repair.
Tissue grafts or flaps consists of skin, muscle, bone, fat or a combination of the all and they are implanted by painstakingly suturing arteries and veins superficially. Amputations and direct damage can be prevented if an accident victim is taken to the hospital within the first 6 to 8 hours, which allows the surgeon to restore circulation quickly by reconnecting the blood vessels.

The graft is usually grafted from the latissimus dorsi muscles which are large, flt muscles in the back because they are expandable and once reconnected do not adversaly impact normal movement and the normal motion in any way. Reconstructive surgery is ususlly done at one go but may be done in more than stages if it is complex. The cost also varies accordingly. An extensive surgery requires a week to 10 days hospital stay and can cost between 1.5 to 2 lakhas depending upon the nature of the injury.

As each coin has a flip side same way the shortfall here is that since the surgery resurfaces the damaged tissue, normal facial expression such as raised eyebrows remains a challenge. 

Lets get to know these terms:-

Microsurgery of flap surgery - An operating microscope and plastic surgeons require hours to replant amputed fingers or transplant large sections of the tissue, muscle, bone from one area to the other with the original blood supply intact in severly injured or disfigured patients.

Tissue expansion - this allows the body to grow extra skin by stretching adjacent tissue. A baloon like device called an expander is inserted under the skin near the area to be repaired and then gradually filled with salt water over time causing the skin to stretch and grow. The time involved in tissue expansion depends on the individual health and the area to be treated.

Skin grafts -  A wound which is wide and difficult or impossible to close directly with a skin graft. A skin graft is basically a patch of healthy skin that is taken from one area of the body called a donor or graft site and used to cover another area where skin is missing or damaged.
Links

This site features the complete plastic surgery with plans and tips, the risks associated with it. All about advanced wound care and microsurgery and laser surgery.
Journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Inc. Table of contents, author guidelines, editorial board and subscription information.
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