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Bladder cancer

Bladder Cancer forms in the outer layer of the bladder. The following are the various layers of the bladder starting with the outer layer and working in toward the inner layer:
(as the cancer penetrates through layers of fat into the layers of the bladder the bladder cancer becomes harder and harder to treat.)

The following are types of cancer or Bladder Tumors commonly found to affect the bladder:


Consider the following treatment options for Bladder Cancer:




Brain tumour

Cancer can occur in any part of the Brain or Spinal Cord. Cancer cells are abnormal cells that divide too frequently and without any order. The causes of central nervous system tumors are not known. In addition, scientists cannot explain why Brain Tumors develop in healthy adults. Certain factors have been identified that may increase someone's chance of developing a Brain Tumor. Consider the following information; workers in certain industries such as oil refining, rubber manufacturing, and drug manufacturing industries have higher rates of select types of Brain Tumors.

Researchers are also studying families in which multiple members have developed the same type of Brain Tumor to see whether heredity plays a role. Researchers are also looking at the connection between viral infections and exposure to radiation as a cause of Brain Tumors. There is no research to suggest that injuries to the head cause or increase anyone's risk for developing a Brain Tumor. Because most patients diagnosed with a Brain Tumor have no identifiable risk factors, it is believed that Brain Tumors are the result of many factors working together.
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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in women. There are 200,000 new cases of breast cancer each year, resulting in 47,000 deaths per year. The lifetime risk of breast cancer is one in eight for a woman who is age 20. For patients under age 60, the chance of being diagnosed with breast cancer is 1 in about 400. Did you know that in 1999, 175,000 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (1 every 3 minutes).

Pathophysiology
The etiology of breast cancer remains unknown, but two Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy breast cancer genes have been cloned-the BRCA-1 and the BRCA-2 genes. Estrogen stimulation is an important promoter of breast cancer, and, therefore, patients who have a long history of menstruation are at increased Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy risk. Early menarche and late menopause are risk factors for breast cancer. Late age at Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy, birth of first child or null parity also increase the risk of breast cancer. Family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Mastectomy and history of benign breast disease also increase the risk of breast cancer. The use of estrogen replacement therapy or oral contraceptives slightly increases the risk of breast cancer. Radiation exposure and alcoholic beverage consumption also increase the risk of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Facts -  by Kalpana Narang.



How to Do A Self Exam - by Kalpana Narang.

1.While Lying Down
Place a pillow under your right shoulder, and your right hand under your head.
Check the breast tissue using a circular, rubbing motion without lifting the fingers.
Vary pressure of your fingers to examine the different layers of breast tissue.
Light pressure: enough to move the skin, but not the underlying layers.
Medium pressure: checks the mid layer of tissue.
Deep pressure: press almost to the ribs, just short of causing discomfort.
Use one of the three techniques for your examination (remember to include the underarm tissue in your exam)
Lines: start in the underarm area and lower your fingers until they are below the breast, move back upwards toward the middle. Use this up and down movement over the entire breast area.
Circles: start at the outer edge of your breast, moving your fingers slowly around the breast in a circle. Examine the breast in smaller and smaller circles, moving toward the nipple.
Wedges: at the outer edge of the breast, move your fingers toward the nipple and back to the edge in a V shape motion. Perform the same movement around the entire breast.

2.While Standing in the Shower
(follow the same techniques outlined above)

3.Mirror Exam
With arms lowered to your sides, look for any dimpling, puckering or other abnormality.
Look for any discharge from both nipples.
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Cervical cancer
Cervical Cancer is the second most common type of cancer in women throughout the world. Cervical Cancer results in death more often than any other cancer afflicting women worldwide. Cervical Cancer developes in the lining of the cervix. A woman's cervix is located at the lower region of the uterus. Cervical Cells undergo gradual changes transforming into precancerous cells and then eventually in to cancerous cells. The natural progression of Cervical Cancer is as follows:

Consider the following Cervical Cancer symptoms:

Colon cancer

Colon Cancer has one of the most curable cancers; however, Colon Cancer is one of the most commonly occuring cancers second only to lung cancer. Colon Cancer is also known as Colorectal Cancer. For the most part Colon Cancer starts out as Polyps which are growths that project (Polyps are often found on a stalk like piece of skin) the lining of the intestine or rectum. Consider some of the following Colon Cancer symptoms:

Consider the following Colon Cancer treatments:
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Kidney cancer

Several different types of cancer can develop in the kidneys. Renal Cell Carcinoma, the most common form, accounts for over half of all cases. The malignant cancer cells develop in the lining of the kidney's tubules and grow into a tumor. In most cases, a single tumor develops, although more than one tumor can develop within one or both kidneys.

As with most types of cancer, early diagnosis of kidney cancer is important. The earlier the tumor is discovered, the better a personís chances are for survival. Tumors found at an early stage regularly respond well to treatment. Survival rates in such cases are high. Tumors that have grown in size or spread through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body are harder to treat and cause an increased risk for mortality.
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Leukemia

Leukemia is a cancer that occurs in blood cells. There are several types of leukemia and these are classified by how quickly they progress and which cells they affect.

The types include:


In the case of leukemia, one blood cell goes awry and the body produces large numbers of this cell. In most cases the cell that goes awry is the white blood cell. When looked at under a microscope, these abnormally produced cells look different then the healthy cells and do not function properly. The body continues to produce these abnormal, non-functional cells, leaving little space for healthy cells. This imbalance of healthy and unhealthy cells is what causes the symptoms of leukemia.
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Liver cancer

Several types of Liver Cancer can form in the liver. The liver is the largest internal organ of the body. The liver performs several vital functions for the body. Some of these functions are as follows:

In order to perform the above functions the liver is comprised of several different types of cells. As a result, several types of Liver Tumors are prone to form in the liver. Liver Tumors can either be Benign Liver Tumors or Malignant Liver Tumors. Consider the following list of Benign Liver Tumors:


Consider the following list of Malignant Liver Tumors:


The following are the main types of treatment for Liver Cancer :-

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Ovarian cancer

Ovarian Cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the ovarian cells. The types of cells that are found in the ovaries include the following:

Any cancer cells that invade the ovaries and begin to grow within the ovaries are not considered or referred to as Ovarian Cancer

Many types of tumors can start to form within the ovary organs of a woman. A few of these types are considered to be benign or noncancerous. In these cases the patient can be cured by surgically removing one ovary or the part of the ovary containing the tumor. Other types of Ovarian Cancer are malignant or cancerous. Treatment options and outcomes for patients that have contracted these types of Ovarian Cancer depend on the exact classification of the Ovarian Cancer and how far it has spread before it is diagnosed. Ovarian Tumors are named according to the category of cells from which the tumor originated and whether the tumor is classified as benign or cancerous.

The three main classifications of Ovarian Tumors are:

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic Cancer is one of the most serious of all cancer; although, Pancreatic Cancer makes up an almost insignificant amount of all newly diagnosed cancer. The Pancreas plays an important role in the function of the body. The Pancreas secretes enzymes that aid in digestion, and the Pancreas also secretes hormones that help to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates.
The reason for the serious nature of Pancreatic Cancer has to do with the ability for the cancer to spread rapidly and do so in most cases without being detected in the early stages. Because of the Pancreatic Cancer facts discussed above, Pancreatic Cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. Consider the following treatments Pancreatic Tumors:

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Prostrate cancer

Prostate Cancer is a group of malignant cancerous cells or in other words a tumor that begins most often in the outer areas of the prostate. Excluding skin cancer, Prostrate Cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in American men.

Normally, there are no early signs or symptoms of Prostate Cancer. Yet, when the tumor grows, it may spread from the prostate to surrounding areas. As the tumor grows, the patient will start to notice symptoms. Some such symptoms include the following:

(Preventing the testicles from producing testosterone may relieve many of the above symptoms.)

The major treatment options for prostate cancer include:

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Rectal cancer

The rectum makes up about the last to eight to ten inches of what is known as the large intestines, while the colon makes up the first six feet of the large intestines. Some of the names by which the rectum are known include sphincter or anus. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of Rectal Cancer. Other types of Rectal Cancers that originate in the rectum include carcinoid and leiomyosarcoma. The following list of physicians may play a part in the treatment of Rectal Cancer:

Consider the following Rectal Cancer treatments

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Skin cancer

The most common type of Skin Cancer is called Melanoma. Melanoma is a type of cancer that forms in melanocytes (pigment producing cells). Of the many different types of melanoma, most are seen in the skin including nail beds, soles of the feet, and scalp. However, it can also be found in the eye, anal canal, rectum, and vagina. Melanoma is on the rise in the United States , accounting for about 4% of all cancers. The amount of new cases has increases steadily each year, but researchers are unsure why.

Other types of skin cancer include:


Skin Cancer occurs mainly in people with fair skin, light eyes, and those who tend to freckle or burn easily during and after exposure to the sunlight. A history of 3 or more sunburns, particularly blistering sunburns (before age 20) greatly increases risk. A history of severe sunburns in childhood and adolescence may actually double the risk of melanoma in adulthood.
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Soft tissue cancer

Soft Tissue Cancer is also known as a Soft Tissue Sarcoma. Sarcomas are cancers that develop from cells found in the soft, supporting tissues of the body. The following list includes several soft tissues (soft tissues are also known as mesenchyma)in which Soft Tissue Cancers or Sarcomas can be found:


Soft Tissue Sarcomas are treated differently than other Sarcomas which originate in other areas of the body. Consider the following options available in the treatment of Soft Tissue Cancer:

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Testicular cancer

Testicular Cancer is one of the more rare forms of cancer; although, diagnosed cases of Testicular Cancer is increasing. Testicular Cancer is found to be more common among men who have had one or both testicles fail to decend from the abdomen area of the body after birth. However, this occurance has not been confirmed to be a direct cause of Testicular Cancer. Another risk factor which indicates the increase likelihood of developing Testicular Cancer is through genetics. Men with some close relative who has had testicular cancer have an increase chance of developing Testicular Cancer. Consider the following treatments available to combate Testicular Cancer:
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Thyroid cancer

A Thyroid Tumor is a mass of abnormally growing cells. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign Thyroid Tumors have uncontrolled cell growth, but without any invasion into normal tissues and without any spread. A Malignant Thyroid Tumor is called cancer when these tumor cells gain the inclination to invade tissues and spread to all areas of the body.

Thyroid Cancer occurs when cells of the thyroid gland grow uncontrollably to form tumors (as described above) that can invade the tissues of the neck spreading themselves to the surrounding tissues of the neck as well as the bloodstream and then to other parts of the body. The most common types of Thyroid Gland Cancer originate in the cells responsible for thyroid hormone production. The general term for cancers that come from glandular tissue is Adenocarcinoma
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Vaginal cancer

Vaginal Cancer is cancer that starts in the vagina. Vaginal Cancer is a rare type of cancer that is very treatable when identified and treated in the early stages of its development. In the majority of cases women with Vaginal Cancer will not experience any signs. As the Vaginal Cancer developes further and passes the precancerous and cancerous stages and becomes invasive Vaginal Cancer, then a majority of women begin to experience one or a variety of the following symptoms:


Consider the following treatments for Vaginal Tumors:

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